# how to draw topographic map

## How do you make a topographic map?

Draw a horizontal line on the graph paper that is the length of your profile line. Draw vertical lines above your starting and ending points. Label the y-axis (vertical lines) with elevations making sure that your scale goes from highest to lowest on your cross-section (see step 3).

## What are the 5 Rules of topographic maps?

Topographic Map Rules

• Contour Lines Never Cross. …
• Measuring Steepness. …
• Stream Flow Direction. …
• Contours Close. …
• Concentric Circles. …
• Elevation Between Lines.

## What are the rules for topographic maps?

Rules of Topographic Maps

• Contour lines always separate points of higher elevation (uphill) from lower elevation (downhill).
• Contour lines never cross or intersect. …
• Contour lines never split or divide. …
• Contour lines always close to form a shape, usually an irregular circle.

## What is a draw on a topographic map?

A draw (US) or re-entrant (international) is a terrain feature formed by two parallel ridges or spurs with low ground in between them. The area of low ground itself is the draw, and it is defined by the spurs surrounding it.

## How do you draw a cross-section on a topographic map?

• How to Draw a Cross-Section of a Map.
• Take a thin strip of paper and place it along the transect line on the map. …
• On a piece of graph paper, draw the horizontal axis of your graph exactly the same length as the transect A-B. …
• Draw two vertical axes using a suitable scale.
• ## What are the 6 rules of a topographic map?

Terms in this set (6)

• Rule 1: Slope. The closer the lines are, the steeper the slope. …
• Rule 2: Flow and Source of a River/Stream. …
• Rule 3: Mountains and Hills. …
• Rule 4: Highest possible elevation of a hill/mountain. …
• Rule 5: Depressions. …
• Rule 6: Lowest possible elevation of a depression.

## How do you draw a depression on a topographic map?

Contour lines that show a depression, crater, or sinkhole on a map are represented by dashed lines (hachure marks) on the inside of a contour line. The elevation of the first depression contour is the same as the nearest regular contour line.

## What is the rule of V’s for contour lines?

The rule of V and U-shaped valleys

As a rule of thumb, the V-shaped contour is pointing upstream (the opposite direction from the flow of a stream or river). The “V” shape contours indicate streams and drainage. As you can see, the “V” points uphill to a higher elevation.

## How do contours work?

Put simply, contour lines mark points of equal elevation on a map. If you trace the length of a line with your finger, each point you touch is the same height above sea level. If you were to walk the path of a contour line in real life, you would remain at the same elevation the whole hike, never traveling up or down.

## How is a cliff shown on a topographic map?

Answer: Cliffs are represented by very close (or sometimes touching) contour lines. … Also note that if a feature such as a small cliff is shorter than the contour interval, then it may not show up on the map.

## What does a draw look like on a map?

A draw. Draws are caused by flash floods and can be found on flat terrain but are more often found along the sides of ridges. Contour lines indicating a draw are shaped like a “V” with the point of the “V” toward the head of the draw (high ground). … A cliff may be shown on a map by contour lines being .

## How do you find elevation on a topographic map?

You can figure out the elevation of any point by finding the nearest labeled line, counting the number of lines above or below it, multiplying by the contour interval, and adding or subtracting the result from the nearest marked contour line. The more closely spaced the contour lines, the steeper the slope.

## How do you make a profile of a landform or terrain on a topographic map?

In order to profile your landform, you need to know the elevations of each section. Then, using your known elevations, draw out contour lines corresponding to your landform’s elevations. Keep in mind contour lines will never cross.

## What are the 3 factors that should be considered upon planning and designing of a contour interval to be used for a topographic map?

Contour interval on a map is decided on the following considerations:

• 1) Scale of the map. The contour interval is kept inversely proportional to the scale of the map. …
• 2) Purpose of the map. …
• 3) Nature of the ground. …
• 4) Availability of time and funds.

## What are the 4 rules for reading a contour map?

Rule 1 – every point of a contour line has the same elevation. Rule 2 – contour lines separate uphill from downhill. Rule 3 – contour lines do not touch or cross each other except at a cliff. Rule 4 – every 5th contour line is darker in color.

## What pattern do topo lines make around hills and mountains?

Cliffs or overhangs are exceptions.] – Half Dome is a large and steep-sided hill referred to as a mountain. ? What pattern do topo lines make around hills and mountains? [Hills are concentric circles or closed figures.]

## What is a Hachure mark on a topographic map?

Hachures are strokes (short line segments or curves) drawn in the direction of the steepest slope (the aspect direction). Steeper slopes are represented by thicker, shorter strokes, while gentler slopes are represented by thinner, longer and farther apart strokes.

## What is every 5th contour line called?

index contour

To make topographic maps easier to read, every fifth contour line is an index contour. The index contour lines are the only ones labeled. The index contours are a darker or wider line in comparison to the regular contour lines. Elevations are marked on the index contour lines only.

## What is contour lines on topographic map?

Elevation contours are imaginary lines connecting points having the same elevation on the surface of the land above or below a reference surface, which is usually mean sea level. Contours make it possible to show the height and shape of mountains, the depths of the ocean bottom, and the steepness of slopes.

## What are contours on a GIS map?

Contours are lines that connect locations of equal value in a raster dataset that represents continuous phenomena such as elevation, temperature, precipitation, pollution, or atmospheric pressure. The line features connect cells of a constant value in the input.

## How is a hill or mountain shown on a topographic map?

Contour lines connect all the points on a map that have the same elevation and therefore reveal the location of hills, mountains, and valleys. While a road map shows where a road goes, a topographic map shows why. For example, the road bends in order to go around a hill or stops at the top of a mountain.

## How do you identify features on a topographic map?

Names of places and features are shown in a color cor- responding to the type of feature. Many features are identified by labels, such as “Substation” or “Golf Course.” Topographic contours are shown in brown by lines of different widths. Each contour is a line of equal elevation; therefore, contours never cross.

## How do Earth scientists use topographic maps?

Earth scientists use topographic maps for many things:

• Describing and locating surface features, especially geologic features.
• Determining the slope of the Earth’s surface.
• Determining the direction of flow for surface water, ground water, and mudslides.

## How to Plot CONTOURS on a SURVEY PLAN with REDUCED LEVEL(R.L.) Points/ Interpolation of CONTOURS

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