under what abiotic conditions can monomers spontaneously form polymers?

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What abiotic conditions can monomers spontaneously form polymers?

The correct option is a. When water evaporates from a hot surface.

Can monomers spontaneously form polymers?

Monomers of biological molecules can form polymers spontaneously. Ordinarily, this would not be possible. Amino acids and nucleotides dissolved in water would never assemble into proteins and nucleic acids on their own anymore than water would run uphill.

What accounts for the similarity between seaweeds and plants quizlet?

Both evolved from brown algae. Convergent evolution caused their similarity. Seaweeds are the ancestors of plants. Convergent evolution caused their similarity.

What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?

What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life? prezygotic barrier; the species remain isolated because they breed in different habitats.

Which of the following is the lineage of green algae believed to most resemble early plant ancestors?

Lesson 9 HW

Question
Answer
________, a chemical that hardens cell walls and supports terrestrial plants, is found in all plants EXCEPT ________. Lignin; bryophytes
Which lineage of green algae is believed to most resemble early plant ancestors? charophytes

Which of the following are reasons why scientists hypothesize that RNA evolved before DNA?

RNA has great capability as a genetic molecule; it once had to carry on hereditary processes on its own. It now seems certain that RNA was the first molecule of heredity, so it evolved all the essential methods for storing and expressing genetic information before DNA came onto the scene.

What adaptation accounts for the success of the angiosperms?

The success of angiosperms is due to two novel reproductive structures: flowers and fruit. The function of the flower is to ensure pollination. Flowers also provide protection for the ovule and developing embryo inside a receptacle. The function of the fruit is seed dispersal.

What accounts for the similarity between seaweeds and plants What accounts for the similarity between seaweeds and plants?

What accounts for the similarity between seaweeds and plants? Convergent evolution caused their similarity. … Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a “catch-all” category called ______.

Why are bryophytes and ferns considered incompletely liberated from their ancestral aquatic habitat when compared with other plants?

Why are bryophytes considered incompletely liberated from their ancestral aquatic habitat? Their sperm are flagellated. … Their sperm are flagellated. Much of the coal we use today came from ______ that lived during the Carboniferous.

What are the four main stages proposed here that would have led to the emergence of life on Earth?

In the first portion of section 22.1, four stages are ordered as follows: Stage 1: Organic molecules, like amino acids and nucleotides, were formed first and the precursors to all life, Stage 2: Simple organic molecules were synthesized into complex molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, Stage 3: Complex …

What are the four processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth?

D1 Origins of Life on Earth

  • The non-living synthesis of simple organic molecules (from primordial inorganic compounds)
  • The assembly of these organic molecules into polymers.
  • The formation of polymers that can self-replicate (enabling inheritance)

What evidence do we have for the origin of life from in abiotic substances?

The earliest evidence of life on Earth comes from fossils discovered in Western Australia that date back to about 3. 5 billion years ago. These fossils are of structures known as stromatolites, which are, in many cases, formed by the growth of layer upon layer of single-celled microbes, such as cyanobacteria.

Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?

The characteristic shared by both algae and seed plants is the presence of chloroplasts. Algae and seed plants both have chloroplasts.

Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?

All angiosperms have flowers, carpels, stamens, and small pollen grains.

Which of the following are the closest algal relatives of land plants?

Charophytes. The charophytes include several different algal orders that have each been suggested to be the closest relatives of the land plants: the Charales, the Zygnematales, and the Coleochaetales. The Charales can be traced back 420 million years.

Which of the following provides evidence that RNA probably evolved before DNA?

DNA Test

Question
Answer
Which of the following nucleotide triplets best represents a codon? a triplet in the same reading frame as an upstream AUG
Which of the following provides some evidence that RNA probably evolved before DNA? DNA polymerase uses primer, usually made of RNA.

How did early prokaryotes evolve and change early Earth?

Explanation: Simple prokaryotic bacteria were probably the first life form on Earth. Some called cyanobacteria discovered how to extract energy from the sun by photosynthesis. As a result, oxygen started to accumulate in the oceans and was subsequently used to oxidize iron in the ocean to form iron oxide deposits.

What characteristic of RNA makes it a likely candidate for the first genetic material in the history of life quizlet?

RNA is a strong candidate for the first self-replicating molecule because it can both function as an enzyme and serve as a template for replication. In the context of chemical evolution, DNA’s structure is interesting because it suggests a possible copying mechanism.

Where does photosynthesis occur in angiosperms?

leaves

The specialization of the plant body, which has evolved as an adaptation to a principally terrestrial habitat, includes extensive root systems that anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil; a stem that supports the growing plant body; and leaves, which are the principal sites of photosynthesis for …

What unique adaptation do angiosperms have?

Angiosperms go a step further from ferns in their adaptations to terrestrial life. They, of course, possess all the specialised structures like roots, stems, leaves, cuticles, stomata, xylems and tough seeds, which enable water conservation and dispersal of seeds for reproduction.

What features of the angiosperm life cycle could account for their present dominant position among land plants?

What features of the angiosperm life cycle could account for their present dominant position among land plants? Notochord, the dorsal hollow nerve cord, the pharyngeal gill slits, and the post-anal tail.

How are the blades of seaweeds different from the leaves of angiosperms?

Blades are not true leaves, because they have no veins or specialized transport tissue. Also, in contrast to true leaves, the upper and lower surfaces of blades are identical to each other. Some sea weeds have a distinct, stem like structure to provide support is known as the stipe.

How do seaweeds differ from marine flowering plants?

Marine flowering plants have true roots that can transport nutrients. Seaweed does not have true roots and cannot transport nutrients, therefore it is not considered a flowering plant.

How do seaweeds anchor to the substrate?

A holdfast is a root-like structure that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, such as seaweed, other sessile algae, stalked crinoids, benthic cnidarians, and sponges, to the substrate. Holdfasts vary in shape and form depending on both the species and the substrate type.

Why are bryophytes considered incompletely liberated from their ancestral aquatic?

They grow at the most places and compulsorly require water or moisture for the fertilisation. The motile male gametes move to the destination by the help of flagella, simiilar to the quatic plants. So, it is considered that the Bryophtes have not completely relieved from the aquatic nature of their ancestors.

Do seed bearing vascular plants produce spores?

The vascular plants, or tracheophytes, are the dominant and most conspicuous group of land plants. They contain tissue that transports water and other substances throughout the plant. … In seedless vascular plants, such as ferns and horsetails, the plants reproduce using haploid, unicellular spores instead of seeds.

Do Gametophytes produce spores?

The mature gametophyte produces both male and female gametes, which join to form a diploid zygote. The zygote develops into the diploid sporophyte, which extends from the gametophyte and produces haploid spores through meiosis. Once the spores germinate, they produce new gametophyte plants and the cycle continues.

What conditions are required for the existence of life on earth?

It is useful to categorize the requirements for life on Earth as four items: energy, carbon, liquid water, and various other elements.

What could potentially be a source of energy in ancient Earth for creating simple organic molecules?

The energy needed to drive the formation of these organic molecules was derived from the sun’s radiation, electrical discharges in the form of lightening, and heat from the cooling earth.

What are the factors that contributed to the emergence of life here on Earth?

A supply of major elements is another condition for the formation of life, as most organisms on earth are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The early Earth crust, along with the atmosphere and ocean, can supply these.

What conditions are needed to form organic molecules from inorganic molecules?

1. Little to no oxygen in the atmosphere, heat, high amounts of energy from UV radiation and lightning caused the spontaneous synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic molecules.

How did mitochondria originate according to the Endosymbiotic theory?

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

What do theories hypothesize about the conditions of Earth’s early atmosphere quizlet?

Theories suggest its atmosphere was similar to the gases released from volcanoes. This means there was little to no oxygen, and the atmosphere was made up primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen. There may have also been small amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide.

What compounds prove the origin of life?

The compounds leading to the origin of life are proteins and nucleic acid.

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