what does mafic mean in science

What Does Mafic Mean In Science?

A mafic mineral or rock is a silicate mineral or igneous rock rich in magnesium and iron. Most mafic minerals are dark in color, and common rock-forming mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite.A mafic mineral or rock is a silicate mineral

silicate mineral
General structure

A silicate mineral is generally an ionic compound whose anions consist predominantly of silicon and oxygen atoms. In most minerals in the Earth’s crust, each silicon atom is the center of an ideal tetrahedron, whose corners are four oxygen atoms covalently bound to it.

What does felsic and mafic mean?

In a widely accepted silica-content classification scheme, rocks with more than 65 percent silica are called felsic; those with between 55 and 65 percent silica are intermediate; those with between 45 and 55 percent silica are mafic; and those with less than 45 percent are ultramafic.

What is an example of mafic?

Mafic is a term used to describe both minerals that are rich in iron and magnesium and rocks that are rich in those minerals. Common examples of mafic minerals include olivine, biotite, hornblende, and pyroxene. The opposite of mafic minerals are felsic minerals, which are poor in iron and magnesium.

What is mafic also known as?

The class of rock which crystallizes from silicate minerals at relatively high temperatures is sometimes referred to as “mafic” rock. It is also sometimes called basaltic since the class includes basalt and gabbro.

Why is it called mafic?

Mafic is used for silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are relatively high in the heavier elements. The term is derived from using the MA from magnesium and the FIC from the Latin word for iron, but mafic magmas also are relatively enriched in calcium and sodium.

What is mafic composition?

A mafic mineral or rock is a silicate mineral or igneous rock rich in magnesium and iron. … Chemically, mafic rocks are enriched in iron, magnesium and calcium and typically dark in color. In contrast, the felsic rocks are typically light in color and enriched in aluminium and silicon along with potassium and sodium.

How is biotite formed?

Biotite is a rock-forming mineral found in a wide range of crystalline igneous rocks such as granite, diorite, gabbro, peridotite, and pegmatite. It also forms under metamorphic conditions when argillaceous rocks are exposed to heat and pressure to form schist and gneiss.

Is pyroxene felsic or mafic?

Image Descriptions

Igneous Rocks
Pyroxene 0% 20 to 75%
Olivine 0% 0 to 25 %
Intrusive Granite Gabbro
Extrusive Rhyolite Basalt

What is mafic magma?

Describes magma that contains lower amounts of silica and is generally less viscous and less gas-rich than silicic magma. Tends to erupt effusively, as lava flows. Includes andesites (57-63 percent SiO2), basaltic andesites (53-57 percent SiO2), and basalts (47-53 percent SiO2).

What minerals are mafic?

mafic rock, in geology, igneous rock that is dominated by the silicates pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, and mica. These minerals are high in magnesium and ferric oxides, and their presence gives mafic rock its characteristic dark colour.

Which two minerals define a mafic composition?

Mafic igneous rocks are dominantly composed of muscovite and quartz. Mafic igneous rock examples include diorite and andesite. Mafic igneous rocks are rich in Fe, Mg, and Ca.

What does felsic describe?

In geology, felsic is an adjective describing igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz. … Felsic refers to silicate minerals, magma, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium.

Is Basalt an igneous?

basalt, extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock that is low in silica content, dark in colour, and comparatively rich in iron and magnesium. Some basalts are quite glassy (tachylytes), and many are very fine-grained and compact.

How is mafic magma produced?

In general, melting of a mantle source (garnet peridotite) results in mafic/basaltic magmas. Melting of crustal sources yields more siliceous magmas. In general more siliceous magmas form by low degrees of partial melting. … So, melting a mafic source thus yields a felsic or intermediate magma.

How is basalt formed?

Basalts are formed by the rapid cooling of basaltic lava, equivalent to gabbro-norite magma, from interior of the crust and exposed at or very close to the surface of Earth. These basalt flows are quite thick and extensive, in which gas cavities are almost absent.

What is ultrabasic and ultramafic?

As adjectives the difference between ultrabasic and ultramafic. is that ultrabasic is (geology) ultramafic while ultramafic is (geology) describing igneous rocks that contain magnesium and iron and only a very small amount of silica, such as are found in the earth’s mantle.

How is magma formed?

Magma forms from partial melting of mantle rocks. As the rocks move upward (or have water added to them), they start to melt a little bit. … Eventually the pressure from these bubbles is stronger than the surrounding solid rock and this surrounding rock fractures, allowing the magma to get to the surface.

Is andesite felsic or mafic?

Igneous Rocks by Composition

Coarse-Grained Textures
Fine-Grained Textures
Peridotite = Ultramafic
Komatiite (Ultramafic, but too rare to worry about at this point in your life)
Gabbro = Mafic Basalt = Mafic
Diorite = Intermediate Andesite = Intermediate
Granite = Felsic Rhyolite = Felsic

Is the crust felsic?

In terms of mineral composition, granite has more feldspar and less amphibole than basalt and almost no pyroxene or olivine, but has abundant quartz—geologically, the continental crust is described as felsic. Chemically (or physically), the continental crust is too buoyant to return to the mantle.

What is made out of quartz?

Products made from quartz

  • Anti-caking powder used in foods (check the label for silicon dioxide) Coffee Creamers use sodium aluminum silicate (feldspar) for the same job!
  • Bricks.
  • Cement.
  • Ceramics.
  • Cooking stoves with halogen heating elements.
  • Fibreglass, used for insulation and for building boats.
  • Glass.
  • Gemstones.

What Colour is calcite?

Calcite is colourless or white when pure but may be of almost any colour—reddish, pink, yellow, greenish, bluish, lavender, black, or brown—owing to the presence of diverse impurities. It may be transparent, translucent, or opaque.

What type of rock is calcite?

Calcite is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks, limestone in particular, much of which is formed from the shells of dead marine organisms. Approximately 10% of sedimentary rock is limestone. It is the primary mineral in metamorphic marble.

What are the 4 compositions of igneous rocks?

Igneous rocks can be divided into four categories based on their chemical composition: felsic, intermediate, mafic, and ultramafic. The diagram of Bowen’s reaction series (Figure 7.6) shows that differences in chemical composition correspond to differences in the types of minerals within an igneous rock.

What minerals contain igneous?

Common Minerals in Igneous Rocks

Potassium feldspar
Plagioclase feldspar (same page as K-feldspar) Hornblende (an amphibole)
Muscovite (a mica) Biotite (a mica; same page as muscovite)
Augite (a pyroxene) Olivine

Does obsidian exist?

obsidian, igneous rock occurring as a natural glass formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava from volcanoes. Obsidian is extremely rich in silica (about 65 to 80 percent), is low in water, and has a chemical composition similar to rhyolite.

What is andesitic magma?

Andesite is a gray to black volcanic rock with between about 52 and 63 weight percent silica (SiO2). … Andesite magma can also generate strong explosive eruptions to form pyroclastic flows and surges and enormous eruption columns. Andesites erupt at temperatures between 900 and 1100 ° C.

Why are there different compositions of magma?

Different minerals within a rocks melt at different temperatures and the amount of partial melting and the composition of the original rock determine the composition of the magma.

What is basaltic magma?

Basaltic lava, or mafic lava, is molten rock enriched in iron and magnesium and depleted in silica. Basaltic magmas are formed by exceeding the melting point of the mantle either by adding heat, changing its composition, or decreasing its pressure. … Underwater, basaltic lavas are erupted as pillow basalts.

Which rock is igneous?

Examples of intrusive igneous rocks are: diabase, diorite, gabbro, granite, pegmatite, and peridotite. Extrusive igneous rocks erupt onto the surface, where they cool quickly to form small crystals.

Is plagioclase a mineral?

Plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earth’s crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition, origin and evolution of igneous rocks.

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

Metamorphic rocks form when rocks are subjected to high heat, high pressure, hot mineral-rich fluids or, more commonly, some combination of these factors. Conditions like these are found deep within the Earth or where tectonic plates meet.

What type of rock is magnesium?

Mafic igneous rocks
Mafic igneous rocks are iron and magnesium rich and contain abundant pyroxene, and calcium rich plagioclase feldspar. Mafic igneous rocks are dark or black in color. Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rocks cool and crystallize quickly at the Earth’s surface resulting in very small, microscopic crystals.

What is the difference between fine grained rocks and coarse grained rocks?

Coarse grain varieties (with mineral grains large enough to see without a magnifying glass) are called phaneritic. Granite and gabbro are examples of phaneritic igneous rocks. Fine grained rocks, where the individual grains are too small to see, are called aphanitic. Basalt is an example.

How does the crystallization of igneous material occur quizlet?

How does the crystallization of igneous material occur? The liquid igneous material cools, the ions within slow in their movement, and they pack more closely together. When sufficiently cooled, ions become confined to a crystalline arrangement.

Igneous Rocks-(Extrusive-Intrusive-Mafic-Felsic

Geology: Felsic vs Mafic

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